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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 154-156

Comprehensive review on physioanatomical aspects of Manipura Chakra


Department of Rachana Shareera, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission29-Oct-2020
Date of Decision02-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance03-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication4-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Sanchita
Department of Rachana Shareera, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_261_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Chakra (wheel) is the energy points which are present in the subtle body and are seven in number. Out of the seven Chakra, Manipura Chakra is the third one. It has control on several functions of the digestive system. Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the physioanatomical aspects of the Manipura Chakra. To find out the relationship between Manipura Chakra and celiac plexus. Data Source: Textbooks related to awakening and healing of Chakra, Sat Chakra Nirupana, Sushruta Samhita, Charaka Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya, B. D Chaurasia's Human Anatomy, Articles, and Internet sources. Review Methods: The present work is done by reviewing the literature on the basis of data compiled from classical texts, contemporary science, published research works, articles related to Manipura Chakra, and celiac plexus. The obtained literature was critically analyzed, interpreted, and presented. Results: The position of Manipura Chakra is said to near the navel. The fire is mentioned as the main attribute of the Manipura Chakra, which in the form of Pachaka Pitta with the help of Samana Vayu governs all the functional aspects of digestion and metabolism. On the basis of positional, structural, and functional similarity, Manipura Chakra can be considered as celiac plexus. Conclusion: Blockage of center of Manipura Chakra can impair gastrointestinal functions which in turn may lead to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Stimulation of Manipura Chakra by means of Beejamantra recitation, Yogasana, and Mudra assists in overcoming diseases related to the gastrointestinal tract and promotes health.

Keywords: Beejamantra, Chakra, Manipura, Mudra, plexus


How to cite this article:
Sanchita, Thomas A, Simon RK, Jigisha P S. Comprehensive review on physioanatomical aspects of Manipura Chakra. J Ayurveda 2022;16:154-6

How to cite this URL:
Sanchita, Thomas A, Simon RK, Jigisha P S. Comprehensive review on physioanatomical aspects of Manipura Chakra. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 29];16:154-6. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/2/154/349766




  Introduction Top


Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to other. It enters the human body at seven specific points, called the Chakra.[1] Manipura Chakra is the third one,[2] situated near the navel, possess ten petals having Ḍa, Ḍha, Na, Ta, Tha, Da, Dha, Na, Pa, and Pha letters on them. It has triangular-shaped red region of fire, within which Beeja of fire, Ram, resides.[3] It regulates the function of the gastrointestinal tract. Blockage in this center can cause digestive and metabolic disorders. Due to structural, physiological, and positional similarity, it can be considered as celiac plexus.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present work is a literary study done by literature review on the basis of literature compiled from classical texts, contemporary science, journals, published research works, articles related to Manipura Chakra, anatomy of the abdomen, celiac plexus from the library of the PG Department of Rachana Shareera, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan, India. The Internet services of the SDM DL library were also used. The literature obtained was critically analyzed and presented. This is purely a literary study wherein the explored literature was analyzed and interpreted.


  Discussion Top


Celiac (solar) plexus

The celiac plexus is an autonomic nervous plexus consisting of interconnected paraaortic ganglia, located around the roots of the major abdominal aorta branches. The function of the celiac plexus is to receive both parasympathetic and sympathetic inputs from the vagus and splanchnic nerves and to convey their respective postsynaptic outputs to the abdominal viscera.[4]

Positional similarity

The location of Manipura Chakra coincides with the location of the celiac plexus. Manipura Chakra is located around the Nabhi Moola[5] (the root of the navel). As per Sushruta Samhita; Nabhi is the site of origin of both Dhamani and Sira. There are 700 Sira and 24 Dhamani in our body. They originate from the Nabhi and moves in upwards, downwards, and transverse directions.[6],[7] The celiac plexus is also present around the roots of the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery.[8] Hence, it can be stated that the position of both Manipura Chakra and celiac plexus resides at the same place, i.e., at the point of the root of major blood vessels of the body.

Structural similarity

Manipura Chakra is having ten petals in the periphery and one Beejamantra Ram in the center. Letters on the petals are Da, Dha, Na, Ta, Tha, Da, Dha, Na, Pa, and Pha with Bindu above. This branching pattern gives it appearance-like sun rays are radiating from the center as Ram is considered as a fire center, so it is also called as solar plexus. Similarly, the celiac plexus is a collection of two bundles of nerves, or ganglion, that intertwine and pass each other at a central location in the abdomen. The celiac plexus, more traditionally known as the solar plexus, because of its resemblance to the sun with nerves meeting in the center, creating rays of nerves radiating outward to many other areas of the body.

Physiological similarity

Manipura Chakra is situated at Nabhi Moola, Nabhi being as a center of Agni or a dominant place of Pitta, with the help of Samana Vayu located at Nabhi, performs the process of digestion through Grahana (consumption/selection), Pachana (conversion), Vivechana (separation), and Munchana (give up for the next stage).[9]

Similarly, the celiac plexus innervates most of the digestive system. It is a large cluster of nerves that transmits message from the major organs of the abdomen to the brain. In Chakra based medicine, practitioners work on this area to promote healthier digestion.

The celiac plexus outsources parasympathetic, sympathetic, and non-proprioceptive fibers. Parasympathetic input for the celiac plexus comes from the vagus nerve, while the sympathetic input is from the greater and lesser splanchnic nerves. Branches of the celiac plexus reach their target organs by forming periarterial plexuses surrounding the branches of the abdominal aorta. Thus, the celiac plexus supplies the inferior part of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, and intestine.

The function of the celiac plexus is to transmit visceral sensory impulses from the foregut and midgut. It increases gland secretion and promotes peristalsis and digestion with its parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division inhibits peristalsis, constricts the sphincter, thereby closing it inhibits acid and pepsin secretion.[4]

Pathological point of view

A healthy third Chakra controls the body's metabolism and overall functioning. It generates enthusiasm and passion for work. When it is operating properly and harmoniously, rich emotions are present. A weakened third Chakra allows increased emotional vulnerability. It relates to the element of fire and also its Beejamantra Ram himself governs the Agni (digestive fire), it is said to rule the digestion and metabolism and is the home of Agni and the Samana Vayu. Proper functioning of this Chakra responsible for maintaining gastrointestinal tract health. Mandagni leads to incomplete digestion of food and causing Ama which in result can block the center of the Chakra. Blockage in this center leads to symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion, and also diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and colitis . One can easily tell the state of the third Chakra by observing appetite. When the third Chakra is weak, person will have a decreased appetite for food. Excessive appetite is also indicative of a Chakra that is unbalanced.[10],[11]

The celiac plexus is an autonomic nervous plexus. The plexuses of the autonomous nervous system have no voluntary control over it. Hence, to get control over these plexuses or to regularize their activities, and for unblocking the Chakra centers recitation of Beejamantra, Yogasana, Pranayama, and Mudra play an important role.

Healing of Chakra

Recitation of Beejamantra

The Beejamantra of Manipura Chakra is Ram. The recitation of Beejmantra by means of meditation has a major role in awakening of this Chakra. Seed Mantra meditation can be done by pronouncing the Mantra Ram. Chanting of the Chakra sounds gives the benefits of singing and deep breathing, as well as the benefits of focusing on altruistic qualities, and processing the experiences of life. The important part is to practice mindfulness, or active listening, to the body and the sounds.[12]

Yogasana

The best Yogasana for solar plexus is those that improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and helps to feel more powerful and confident. Aasana such as Vajrasana, Virabhadrasana, Paripurna Navasana, Ardha Matsyendrasana, Paschimottanasana, Trikonasana, Shirangushthasana, Santulanasana, Nauli Kriya, and Agnisara Kriya acting by raising abdominal pressure, as a result the blood circulation to terminal parts of abdominal viscera also improves which in result improves gastrointestinal tract health.[13]

Mudra

The Mudra healing method depends on the fingers. To understand this, one should first know the finger element relationship, Thumb– Fire element, Index finger– Wind element, Middle finger– Space element, Ring finger– Earth element, and Little finger– Water element. When the fingers are brought together in a specific pattern and are touched to each other, or slightly pressed against each other, the formation is called as a Mudra.[1] While performing the Mudra for awakening and balancing of Manipura Chakra, one should concentrate on breathing and visualize a ray of bright yellow light entering the abdominal Chakra and the Chakra glowing in a bright yellow luminescence. Some of these Mudra are Manipura Chakra Mudra, Rudramudra, Adhomukhmudra, Garudamudra, and Surabhimudra.[1]


  Conclusion Top


The Manipura Chakra can be considered as celiac plexus based on its positional, structural, and functional indistinguishability, which is autonomic in nature. Positionally, both are residing around the root of major blood vessels of the body. Structurally, both seem like a sun in the center, emerging its rays into the periphery. Functionally, both Manipura Chakra and celiac plexus govern the functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The energy entering the Chakra leads to proper functioning and nourishment. Proper functioning of this Chakra generates gastrointestinal health, enthusiasm, and passion. If a Chakra is closed, blocked, or unbalanced then the organs associated with the gastrointestinal tract are malnourished leading to further complications and diseases. Beeja mantra recitation, Yogasana, and Mudras are the measures which help in stimulating, awakening, or balancing the Manipura Chakra which in result maintains the proper functioning of abdominal organs and thereby help in preventing and managing diseases and creates a goodwill.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Advait. Textbook of Mudras for awakening Chakras. 2nd ed. California (U.S): Create Space Publishers; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
USA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.; c2009 Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 10, Last updated 2020 Sep 27].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Purnananda Svami, Sat Chakra Nirupana. Reprint Edition 2nd, Ch. 3, Ver. 20-21. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2008. p. 37.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Celiac Plexus. Berlin: Freie University. Available from: https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/celiac-plexus. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 28, Last updated on 2020 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Purnananda Svami. Sat Chakra Nirupana. Reprint Edition 2nd, Ch. 3, Ver. 19. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan; 2008. p. 33-4.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dalhanacharya on Sushruta Samhita, Sharirasthana, Siravarnavibhakti Shariram 07/03. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 10].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Dalhanacharya on Sushruta Samhita, Sharirasthana, Dhamnivyakarana Shariram 09/03. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/esushruta. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 10].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Chaurasia BD, Krishna G, editor. Chaurasia's Human Anatomy Regional and Applied. 7th ed., Vol. 2. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributers; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Bhishagacharya Harishashtri Paradkar, editor. Arunadatta and Hemadri on Ashtangahridaya of Vagbhatta, Sutrasthana, Reprint Edition 2000. Ch. 12, Ver. 08. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2000. p. 193.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Lee I. Textbook of Healing Chakras. 2nd ed. Sedona (AZ): BEST Life Media Publishers; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chakrapani on Charaka Samhita, Chikitsasthana, Grahanichikitsitam Aadhyaya, 15/51. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echaraka. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 09].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
McAndrew P. Evolution Physical Therapy & Yoga. Chanting the Chakra Sounds and the Nervous System. 2019. Available from: https://www.evolutionvt.com/chanting-the-chakra/. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 18].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Chakras.net. Manipura Chakra- Navel center. Austria, Europe: International Yoga Vedanta Verband. Available from: https://www.chakras.net/energycenters/manipura/exercises. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 20, Last updated on 2018 May 30].  Back to cited text no. 13
    




 

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