|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 55-59
Interpretation of Charakokta Vega with Reference to Kriya Sharira
Sangeeta Sanjay Jadhav, Hemangini Waghulade
D Y Patil School of Ayurveda, Navi Mumbai. Maharashtra, India
|Date of Submission||17-Apr-2020|
|Date of Decision||06-Oct-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Nov-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||19-Mar-2022|
Sangeeta Sanjay Jadhav
7, Yash Paradise Soc, Sect 8-A, Airoli, Navi Mumbai 400 708, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: Ayurveda the primitive and preventative science elucidated adharneeya (nonsuppressible) Vega (natural urges) to prevent and restrain diseases. Vega plays a major role in the proper functioning of the body. They are regulated mainly by Vata with the support of other subtype of dosha and the controlled and guided activities of mind. Vega Dharana is considered as the contributory cause of many chronic diseases and acute physiological conditions. Data Source: Classical Ayurvedic texts along Charka are searched to interpret the Ayurvedic physiology of each Vega. Review Methods: Both Ayurveda and modern recent researches on natural Vega, and their therapeutic significance is explored through electronic search. Result: Understanding the physiology of Adharneeya Vega is crucial for the etiopathogenesis of their consequences and other related diseases described by Ayurveda classics. Conclusion: In the present article, an attempt has been made to explore the concept of adharaneeya Vega mentioned in Charaka samhita with contemporary relevance in clinical Ayurveda practice and thereby aid in health promotion and also as a preventive tool.
Keywords: Reflexes, Vega, Vega Dharana, Vega udirana
|How to cite this article:|
Jadhav SS, Waghulade H. Interpretation of Charakokta Vega with Reference to Kriya Sharira. J Ayurveda 2022;16:55-9
| Introduction|| |
The social and behavioral concepts, behavioral science, delineated in the classical treatises of Ayurveda hold important value in the current trendy world. These principles can be used to understand and unravel the complex individual and community health. Ayurveda is a primitive and preventive science of India. Conservation of the health of the healthy person is the primary motive of Ayurveda. Hence, detailed daily regimen and regimen according to seasons is described in Charaka to prevent contagious, epidemic, and communicable diseases. The concept of homeostasis in Ayurveda is the equilibrium condition of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Agni as well as soul, mind, and sense organs. (Su. U. 55) Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the individual to keep it normal cautiously. The second most importance is given to the nonsuppression of natural urges (Vega) in a separate session to emphasize its clinical importance. (Cha. Soo. 8/1–24) Dharaneeya (suppressible) and Adharaneeya (nonsuppressible) Vega described in Ayurveda classics are essential for the health and supposed to be the part of homeostasis. Suppressible Vega is more coherent to limbic system, and nonsuppressible Vega is more related to the metabolism of the body. Vega plays a major role in the proper functioning of the body. They are regulated mainly by Vata with the support of other dosha subtype and by controlled and guided activities of mind. Suppression of Vega can cause vitiation of Vata, other dosha, and it also affects the functions of related systems. Vega dharana is the contributory cause of many chronic diseases and often the immediate cause to acute conditions.
In the present article, an attempt has been made to interpret the physiology of each Vega described by Charaka. So far, we did not find any paper explaining the physiology of 13 Vega. Understanding the physiology of adharaneeya Vega is crucial to interpret the etiopathogenesis of related consequences and their role in the disease generation described by Ayurveda classics. Prevention of this root cause should be the initial approach to control the disease at the primary stage and to restrain the recurrence of related ailments.
| Methods|| |
In this review study, many aspects of Vega and their physiology were analyzed to manifest their clinical significance. Classical Ayurvedic texts were searched for the reference of Vega and Vega Dharana and their consequences and functions of dosha and mala. Both Ayurveda and modern recent researches on Vega and Vega Dharana and reflexes and their therapeutic significance are explored through electronic search.
Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Sc Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar using the following combination of keywords: (Vega OR reflexes OR natural urges and diseases OR suppression of natural urges and adverse events).
| Literary Study|| |
Classification of Vega
Human body is a remarkable biological machine, maintained by interdependent body systems and organized functions of dosha. It has ingenious inbuilt mechanisms to maintain the health and Vega is one of them. Ayurveda describes adharneeya shariara (physical) Vega as and dharaneeya manasik (psychic) Vega which directly influence the physical, physiological, and psychological health of an individual.
According to Charaka, there are 13 types of adharneeya Vega, and out of these only six Vega Dharana (defecation, urination, flatus, ejaculation, vomiting, and sneezing) are described as udavarta caused due to the inverse direction of apana vata. (Ch. Ch. 26/5–6) Suggesting the rest seven Vega are caused by other subtype of vata. Again defecation, urination, flatus, hunger, thirst, and burping are described as the signs of proper digestion and directly relate to the metabolism of the body (Jeerana ahar lakshana). (Yo. R. Ajeerna/2) Except hunger, thirst, and nidra all other Vega can be called as expulsive as they expel by-products or the waste products from the body and are directly related to the natural course of vata.
Dharneeya Vega is classified into three Kayik, Vachik, and Manasik and is related to mind. Suppression of these Vega is necessary for a healthy mind. (Ch. Soo. 8/27).
Classification of Vega according to their related functions in the body is given in [Table 1].
|Table 1: Vega can be classified according to their related functions in the body|
Click here to view
| Role of Vata Subtype|| |
According to the Ayurvedic physiology, Vega is related to the movement, and among the three dosha, only vata has the quality to move. Any movement from muscular to cellular is mainly due to Vata along other dosha or structures respective to the location. Dosha is divided into subtypes according to their specific functions. Exploring the natural course and interpretation of function of contributing vata subtype in the Vega will rationalize the consequences described due to suppressed Vega.
Role of each vata subtype and interpretation of its functions in corresponding Vega is given in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Role of vata subtype and interpretation of its functions in the vega|
Click here to view
| Role of Mana, Atma, and Buddhi|| |
Mana (mind) plays an important role in dharaneeya and adharneeya both types of Vega. Functions of mana are to keep control on all organs and to judge and think. Mana and buddhi are called as the internal indriya and dyanendriya (sense organs) and karmendriya are called as the external indriya. Five sense organs perceive information with the help of mind, and for final perception, indriya buddhi is needed. Each indriya has its separate buddhi or interpreting centers to analyze the indriya artha or the stimulus. Buddhi or intelligence, after going through the analysis made by mind, takes final decision about perceived object with the help of previous experience. Soul gets all the information through indriya. Mind is of utmost importance in any sensation converted into body sensation. It is needed that the body, sense organs, and mind should be together for any kind of sensation. (Ch. Sh. 1/22–24) Even if soul is present in the body, it is unable to perceive any stimulus without sense organs it cannot reciprocate the signals.
The mechanism of Vega differs from other body functions such as eating, listening, and watching, where dyanendriya is obligatory for the perception of knowledge. It also differs from the other unconscious functions such as breathing and beating of heart (signs of karma purusha) because it can be consciously controlled by buddhi. Hence, Vega is described separately to emphasize the clinical importance of internal indriya.
| Role of Dosha in Vega with Respect to Functions of Mind and Heart|| |
Prana vata controls functions of mind, buddhi, indriya, and heart. (Va. Soo. 12/4) Manobodhan is one of the functions of Udana Vata described in Ashtang Sangraha and Smriti (memoary) is a special function of Udana. Sadhaka pitta is responsible for Buddhi and retention of knowledge. Hridaya (heart) is the location of mind, prana, vyana, udana vata, and sadhaka pitta. Mechanism of sensory reception of touch is supported by hridaya. (Ch. Soo. 30/6) Thus, sensations of Vega are perceived by hridaya and mind with the help of prana, udana, and vyana vata. Buddhi plays a role for the smooth functioning of Vega or responsible for Vega Dharana or Vega udirana.
| Role of Nervous System, Reflexes, and Neurotransmitters|| |
Peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous system. The autonomic controls and regulates the internal organs without any conscious recognition or effort by the organism and is subdivided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Organ systems are balanced between the input from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The enteric nervous system has few myenteric plexuses, in which the nervous tissue in the wall of the digestive tract organs can directly influence digestive function.,
Response to the stimulus in a way to maintain homeostasis is called reflex or homeostatic reflex. Some reflexes are totally involuntary, and some reflexes are conscious at some level and inhibitory. Neural reflex (e.g., body temperature control), hormonal reflexes (e.g., blood sugar control), and neural-hormonal reflexes (e.g., control of water balance) are the three types of homeostatic reflexes. There are two types of reflex arcs of autonomous nervous system, one is autonomic reflex arc that affects the inner organs, and the other is somatic reflex arc that affects muscles.
General visceral afferent sensations are mostly unconscious; in certain instances, they may send pain sensations to the central nervous system as referred pain. If the peritoneal cavity becomes inflamed or if the bowl is suddenly distended, this afferent pain stimulus is interpreted as somatic in origin. This pain is usually nonlocalized. Sex, fear, rage, aggression, and hunger are emotional stimuli to visceral responses.
Classification of reflexes according to the involvement of the part of the nervous system:
- Brain stem – vomiting, sneezing, and swallowing
- Spinal reflex – urination and defection
- Brain, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem – breathing, eating, and water balance (homeostasis)
- Emotion linked – urination and defecation.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry, boost, and balance (inhibitory or excitatory) signals between neurons or nerve cells and other cells in the body. They can affect a wide variety of both physical and psychological functions including heart rate, sleep, appetite, mood, and fear.
Autonomous nervous system, reflexes, and neurotransmitters play an important role in every Vega.
| Physiology of Each Vega|| |
Vega is a mechanical process of fine coordination of dosha, srotus, organs, and mind. Physiology of each Vega evaluates its clinical importance. Associated srotus is interpreted by sroto dushti signs and associated anatomy is also interpreted by the organs described in the associated srotus, location of dosha, and with the help of contemporary science [Table 3].
| Application of Knowledge of Vega|| |
Vitiation of Prana, Udana, and Vyana Vata can be anticipated in every Vegarodha. As heart is the site of mind, soul, Prana, Udana, and Vyana Vata, it elucidates the reason of consequences related to heart, head, and skin. Supressing (Dharana) or urging (Udirana) the Vega leads to pathological conditions in the body and the mind.
Suppression of Vega can anatomically and physiologically affect the neurotransmitters, autonomous nervous system, limbic system, functions of associated systems, and organs. The effect of frequent suppression of Vega can be extensive overtime.
Knowledge of physiology of Vega is important in health promotion as a preventive care and to check the progress or reoccurrence of the related diseases.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]