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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

Etiology-based survey study of skin disease as per ayurvedic text


1 Department of Agad Tantra, Faculty of Agad Tantra (Ayurveda Toxicology), Uttarakhand Ayurveda University, Gurukul Campus, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Agad Tantra, NIA, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Ras Shastra, Faculty of Rasa Shastra and Bhaisjya Kalpana, Bhagwant Ayurvedic College, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission10-Oct-2020
Date of Decision30-May-2021
Date of Acceptance08-Sep-2021
Date of Web Publication19-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Bhawana Mittal
Department of Agad Tantra (Ayurveda Toxicology), Uttarakhand Ayurveda University, Gurukul campus, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_226_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Our main aim is to adopt the holistic approach of Ayurveda in the prevention of disease before to treat the cause. Because of changing lifestyle and environmental conditions skin diseases are markedly increased in number. Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Ahara (diet) and Vihara (life style) on Kushtha (skin disease) through conceptual study and survey study is applied on clinical grounds. Methods: In the present study, etiological-based survey of 90 patients who visited in the outpatient department and inpatient department of the Department of Agad Tantra (Ayurveda Toxicology) National Institute of Ayurveda was carried out to assess the dietary and habitual lifestyles of people suffering from Kushtha (skin disease). The study was interview-based survey on simple randomized selection of patients. In the present study, an etiology-based survey questionnaire was prepared based on classics to assess dietary and habitual lifestyles of people suffering from skin disease. Results: In the present clinical study, maximum number of patients having mandagni. Aam rasa is produced due to mandagni, which is stated as the prime cause for almost all diseases. Viruddahara, Mithyahara-vihara are perceived as major causative factors in observation during the study. Conclusion: Avoidance of these aetiologies is concluded to be the first step in the direction of control and management of Kushtha (skin disease). As Ahara and its related codes and conducts have been long forgotten by the human being; therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate and rediscover this ancient science of dietetics in Ayurveda both conceptually and clinically.

Keywords: Aam rasa, aharaja, Ayurveda, Kushtha, mandagni, Mithyahara, Mithyavihara, Nidana, skin disease, viharaja, viruddahara


How to cite this article:
Mittal B, Sharma A, Chand T. Etiology-based survey study of skin disease as per ayurvedic text. J Ayurveda 2022;16:22-6

How to cite this URL:
Mittal B, Sharma A, Chand T. Etiology-based survey study of skin disease as per ayurvedic text. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 29];16:22-6. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/1/22/339984




  Introduction Top


To determine the beauty and personality of a person, the first visible and largest organ is Skin, which markedly damaged by disease name Kushtha. In Ayurveda, all the skin disorders comes under the umbrella of the term Kushtha. Acharya Charaka has mentioned the chronic nature of it.[1] The theory of Tridosha in Ayurveda states that it is the unhygienic and irregular diet pattern which leads to affect the natural regulator dosha of the body, which in morbid state affect the skin and causes Kushtha.[2] Faulty dietary habits such as Viruddhahara (incompatible diet), Mithyahara (faulty food articles), Atiasana (excessive intake of diet), Adhyasana (taking food just after completing a previous meal), Ajirnanna (taking food in the state of indigestion) are described as an important causative factors in Kushtha which plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of Kushtha.[3] Therefore, Ahara which is the basic medicament than any other required substance for the maintenance of sound health and prevention of occurrence of disease in a person.[4],[5]

Concept of Agni, Aahar, and Aam

In Ayurveda, Agni is said to be played important role in the physiology of the human body. The basic function of Agni is to break down the complex food molecules into homologous simpler one so to use in metabolism effectively. Thus, in the maintenance of health of a person is the essentiality of Agni in proper functioning state is required. Acharya Charak has described 13 types of Agni which are necessary at different level of metabolism, i.e., Jhatharagni, Bhutagni and Dhatavagni and if these Agni at any level become hypofunction (mandagni) due to various faulty dietary habits such as Viruddhahara, Adhyasana, and Ajirnasana leads to the formation of residue of undigested food, i.e., Aam. This Aam can be correlated as the product of metabolic defect which considered in Ayurveda as an important factor in the pathogenesis of most of the diseases. As this stagnant Aam is difficult to expel from the both Urdhavmarga and Adhomarga from Aamshaya, it gets fermented and produced Aamvisha. Hence, this Aam dosha is the major root cause of skin diseases.[6]

Aims and objectives

  1. To find out the role of Ahara and Vihara in the manifestation of skin disease
  2. To assess the causative factors in the pathogenesis of skin disease by aetiology-based survey study.



  Materials and Methods Top


To develop the concept, the study was carried out in two heading namely conceptual study comprises of the review of the available literature in the ancient classical texts, literature in modern science concerned with this principle, scientific journals, dissertations, and research paper. Whereas for the survey study, patients taken were suffering from skin diseases visited in the outpatient department and inpatient department of the Department of Agad Tantra (Ayurveda Toxicology) National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Two groups of each 45 registered patients were made further. In which group A consists of patients suffering from skin disease <1 year, and in Group B, patients having disease more than 1 year were taken. In the present study, an etiology-based survey questionnaire was prepared based on classics to assess dietary and habitual lifestyles of people suffering from skin disease.

For the calculations, InStat Graph Pad software was used and for Nonparametric Data Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test and for the Intergroup comparison, Mann–Whitney Test and Unpaired t-test was deploy.


  Results and Observation Top


As a part of the developmental transition in India, various changes are bring out in the millions of people lives due to urbanisation and environmental degradation which includes changes in the family structures and its value system in lifestyle of peoples which further leads to changes in dietary practices and jeopardized the norms regarding diet and regimen, eventually declining the status of health in the society by progressive early ageing in major part of population.

In the present study, in both groups most of the patients having so many worries could not concentrate on Aaharvidhivisheshaayatan (code of conducts of eating).[7] In the various text of Ayurveda, inappropriate food habits mentioned as the major contributing factor for Kushtha (skin disease). In the present clinical study, maximum number of patients having mandagni which trigger the production of Aam rasa.[8] This Aam is the foremost cause for almost all diseases in Ayurveda.[9] Most of the patients in both groups are taking viruddahara. Viruddhahara has a propensity to provoke the doshas only and not to expel them out, and these dislodged and provoked doshas then interfere with the normal physiology and cause various disorders[10] [Table 1], [Table 2] and [Graph 1], [Graph 2]:[2],[4],[6]
Table 1: Distribution of patients according to Aharaja Nidana (causative factors related to diet)

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Table 2: Distribution of patients according to Viharaja Nidana (causative factors related to life style)

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  • Majority of patients in both groups having a tendency of taking Viruddahara with Vidhahi Anna (30%), which has the propensity to provoke the doshas only and compel them to dislodge in the body channels to interfere in the normal physiology of body by causing various disorders
  • In both groups, patients having a tendency of taking Atiamla, Lavana ras sevan with Vidhahi Anna (8.88%) excessive intake of lavana (salty), amla (acidic), til (sesame oil), guda (jaggary), dadhi (curd) produces pitta prakopaka, kushthakara[11],[12]
  • In both groups, 35.33% of patients having Divaspana (sleeping in the day time) which is said to disorganize the doshas and catalyze the pathogenesis of skin disease
  • In both groups, 33% of patients possess Vegadharana (suppression of urge of vomiting and other natural urges) which distinctly mentioned by the Acharya Charaka in the cause of Kushtha.[13] When doshas are ready to be expelled from the nearest outlet, i.e., mouth after being displaced from their normal seats, elicit the urge of vomiting. On suppression of this urge, these dislodged dosha retain in their seats due to closure of their exit route from the body [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 3: Aharaja Nidana and their effect

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Table 4: Mithyahara according to different Acharyas

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  Discussion Top


Both healthy body and disease are the outcome of Ahara. Production of Aamvisha and Kleda occur in the body by excessive consuming Viruddhahara, which causes dhatushithilatva in body and enhancing the pathogenesis of disease through favouring the settlement of dosha in the obstructed channel by Aam. Activities which are not tolerable to an individual is being shown as Mithyavihara, which advised in classics to avoid the occurrence of many diseases like Kushtha.[6]

The assessment of Nidan sevan was done on the basis of frequency and quantity of consumption of particular nidan. The present study revealed that maximum patients possessing tendencies for having food which are holding the basic constitution of dominancy of lavana (salty), kshara and amla rasa. These food are described as Atividahi ahara in Ayurveda text or refer as the etiological factor in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disease by vitiating vata, pitta, and rakta dhatu of the body system[14] among these Aharaja nidana second commonest cause in disturbing the major dosha of the body is the excessive use of snigdha (unctuous), vidahi, guru (heavy) guna dominant food, which are easily available as Chinese, Punjabi, and fast food meal pattern in a civil person lifestyle. Including these diet plan in the major meal of an individual elicit the vitiation of dosha which eventually done the margavraodhata (obstruction) in the way of vata which further leads to the vitiation of vata dosha and dhatus respectively in the body majorly aggravation of samana vayu is occurred here.[6]

Nidana shows that atiamla, lavan, kshara rasa pradhan dravya such as Pickle, Jam, Sauce, and Chinese food provokes the pitta and aggravates Rakta so this type of food should be avoided. Ladoo, ghee, sweets, cake, bread, and chocolate-like food items are guru, and snigdha ahara are Durvipak Karanam. In dairy products, Dadhi is Mahaabhishyandi, Kushthakara so dairy products should be avoided.

Mithyahara is related with faulty food articles, faulty food pattern, and sequences, excessive intake of alcohol, and psychological disturbance during meal. Improper food habits is discovered as the major causative factor in Kushtha. Faulty food habits such as intake of Mithyahara by not following the Aaharvidhivisheshaayatan, Atyasana (Excessive amount of diet), Ahitabhojanan, Asatmyahara (Unwholesome diet), Ajirneanne (Intake of food in state of indigestion), Adhyasana (Taking food just after completing a previous meal) individually or combined disturb the whole annavaha srotas or malavaha srotas and does main impact on the grahani which induces the production of undigested food, i.e., Aam in the gut. As these foods take a longer time to digest, it further precipitates the Aam by slowing down the peristaltic movement of the gut. This stagnant Aam turned to Aam visha which eventually arise the symptoms of skin disease.


  Conclusion Top


Hence, faulty diet pattern such as Viruddhahara (incompatible food), Mithyahara, Atiasana, Adhasana, Vishmasana, Ajirnanna plays a significant role in disturbing the normal status of Agni in the body. This hypo functioning state of Agni leads to the production of Aam which is the root cause of almost all diseases mentioned in Ayurveda text. Atiamla, lavan, kshara rasa pradhan dravya such as Pickle, Jam, Sauce, and Chinese food provokes the pitta and aggravates Rakta which additionally disturbs the normal physiology of the body. Besides these diet patterns unhealthy lifestyle like Divaspana (sleeping in the daytime) and Vegadharana (suppression of urge of vomiting and other natural urges) are discovered as a catalyst in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. Thus it can be concluded that it is the Nidana that plays an important role in the diagnosis or treatment of Kushtha (skin disease). Hence, the adoption of healthy lifestyle and dietary food habits is necessary to combat these by giving due respect to the biological clock.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

1.
Charak Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Yajjapurushiya Adhyaya, 25/40. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Charaka Samhita, Nidana Sthana, Kushthanidana Adhyaya 5/6. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sushruta Samhita, Nidana Sthana, Kushthanidana Adhyaya, 5/3. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Charak Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Vividashitpitiya Adhyaya 28/45. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Vividashitpitiya Adhyaya 28/41. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sushruta Samhita, Nidana Sthana, Kushthanidana Adhyaya, 5/3. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 17].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Charak Samhita, Viman Sthana, Rasavimana Adhyaya 1/22. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Grahanidosachikitsa Adhyaya 15/44. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Grahanidosachikitsa Adhyaya 15/4. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Aatreyabhadrakapiya Adhyaya 26/81. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, Rasavimana Adhyaya 1/18. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, KushtachikitsAadhyaya 7/8.Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Charak Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Nvagaandharniya Adhyaya 7/14. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, Vidhishoditiya Adhyaya 24/10. Available from: http://niimh.nic.in/ebooks/echarak. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 15].  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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