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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-21

Variation in different parameters of Nadi and pulse in accordance to Prakriti


Department of Kriya Sharir (Physiology), Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission05-Nov-2020
Date of Decision06-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance01-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication19-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Narendra Shanker Tripathi
Department of Kriya Sharir (Physiology), Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/joa.joa_278_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Nadi Pariksha or pulse examination is one of the important tools for the examination of a healthy and in diseased person which has been recognized not only in ancient systems of medicines but also in the contemporary medicine. It has been included under Ashtavidha Rogi Pariksha by Yogaratnakar which itself signifies its importance, as it is ranked 1st. Methods: Moreover, Ayurveda scholars have many aspects of Nadi Pariksha, many of which are still unexplored. Thus, this exploratory study was designed and done with aim to find out any variation in parameters of Nadi and pulse in accordance with Prakriti. 200 healthy volunteers, willing to participate in the study were selected through purposive sampling method and were subjected for the assessment of Prakriti, Nadi, and pulse examination. Results: It was observed that only few parameters do vary statistically in accordance with Prakriti. Secondly, it was also observed that Nadi and Prakriti are showing some correlation. Irregular pulse was observed in persons having Vata Prakriti by using manual method. While regular pulsation was observed in the persons having Pitta and Kapha Prakriti. Mean value of pulse rate observed maximum in Pitta Prakriti and minimum in Kapha Prakriti persons by manual method. Conclusion: Although it was exploratory study, some relation between Nadi, Pulse and Prakriti has been observed but few of them were not found statistically significant. Second, the difference in observation through Nadi Tarangini method and manual method might have occurred due to the small sample size. Therefore, more researches may be conducted with larger sample size. It can be also said that Nadi and Prakriti are independent parameters and they are showing some correlation.

Keywords: Nadi, Nadi Pariksha, Prakriti, pulse


How to cite this article:
Mourya RK, Tripathi NS, Dubey SK. Variation in different parameters of Nadi and pulse in accordance to Prakriti. J Ayurveda 2022;16:17-21

How to cite this URL:
Mourya RK, Tripathi NS, Dubey SK. Variation in different parameters of Nadi and pulse in accordance to Prakriti. J Ayurveda [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Nov 29];16:17-21. Available from: http://www.journayu.in/text.asp?2022/16/1/17/339986




  Introduction Top


Nadi Pariksha or pulse examination is one of the important tools for the examination of a healthy and in a diseased person. It has been used not only by the Indian System of Medicine but was popular in an other system of medicine like Chinese, Greek, etc., too. Although in Brihatrayi, Nadi Pariksha as not been employed as a tool for Rogi Pariksha, they have mentioned various references regarding the pulse signifying the prognosis of diseases or life span of the patient. For example, in Indriyasthana Acharya Charak has described that the absence of pulsation in areas of continuous pulsation is a sign of death or bad prognosis.[1],[2] However, during the period of Kanada, Ravana, Yogaratnakara, Bhavaprakasha or Sharangdhara, Nadi Pariksha became one of the most important tools for Roga Pariksha as well as for the diagnosis of disease.[3] Acharya Yogaratnakara has included Nadi Pariksha under the Ashtavidha Rogi Pariksha along with the examination of Mutra, Mala, Jihva, Shabda, Sparsha, Drika and Aakriti and has advised that physician should start the examination of a person from pulse.[3] He has further made emphasis on the importance of pulse by citing that as the instrument made by the union of fine wires emits out the various melodic tunes when it is stroked, similarly the pulse of the hand is sufficiently able to indicate the various diseases of the body. Therefore, the physician should examine the pulse, to know the condition of deranged Doshas.[4]

Ayurveda Samhitas possess detailed description regarding the various aspects of Nadi Vigyana, i.e., pulse examination like sites, method, indication and contraindications, precautions, properties of Nadi in various physiological, pathological, and psychological states, idioms of movement of animals and birds for describing the Doshika Nadi etc. The advice of pulse examination in the root of thumb by leaving one Angula[5] gives a directive regarding their deep insights about the anatomy of radial artery. Their indication of using the first three fingers for examination of pulse is also concurrent with the contemporary science, but there is a difference that in Ayurveda three fingers were used for examining the status of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, respectively. While in contemporary science only the middle finger is used for assessing the pulse whereas, index and ring finger are used for differing the pressure on the artery and prevents reflections of pulsations from the palmer arch of arteries respectively.[6] Along with this, several references showing the difference in the pulse examination and Nadi Pariksha. Lacuna in the present knowledge: Many attempts have been done for the interpretation of various concepts of Nadi as described in texts of Ayurveda with contemporary science, as well as there are too many studies showing the association of Prakriti with various hematological, biochemical, genomic parameters, seasonal variation of different parameters in accordance to Prakriti[7],[8] but only few studies have been done to find out the correlation between Nadi Pariksha and pulse examination in accordance to Prakriti of an individual. Thus, this study was carried out to find out the correlations between the various parameters of Nadi and pulse in accordance to Prakriti. This approach will help define physiological variations in these parameters as per Prakriti which will help to develop certain tool for the assessment of Prakriti. This study also tends to find out the relation between Vatadi Nadi and Vatadi Prakriti.


  Methods Top


This was a type of cross-sectional observational study in which study population has been selected through a convenient sampling method from the BAMS first and second professional student of BHU. Total of 200 young healthy volunteers of age group 18–26 years, willing to participate in the study by giving their written consent were selected for the study. Those participants who were not falling in this age group, suffering from any type of recurrent or chronic illness such as hypertension, diabetes, tuberculosis, malignancy, or any other disease were excluded from the study. Volunteers were registered in the study after employing inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thereafter assessment of Prakriti, Nadi and pulse was done. This study was approved by the ethical committee of the institute, vide letter number Dean/2018/EC/700, dated July 14, 2018.

Assessment of Prakriti

The assessment of Prakriti was done through the reliable and validated pro forma designed by Tripathi and Gehlot, 2016.[9] Ekdoshaja Prakriti was assigned to all volunteers based on dominant Dosha having more than 45% and difference of more than 7% between primary and secondary Dosha.[10] Finally, out of 200 healthy subjects, 37, 67, and 96 subjects were found to be belonging to Vata, Pitta, and Kapha Prakriti, respectively.

Assessment of pulse and Nadi

The pulse examination was done manually. While, Nadi Pariksha was done by both methods, manually as well as through Nadi Tarangini yantra, during the morning hours with an empty stomach. Ancient and modern methods were employed to assess Nadi-manually. For the ancient method, first three fingers, i.e., index, middle, and ring fingers of the right hand were placed gently over the radial pulse at the wrist of the subject, one Anguli (finger) below from Angusthamoola,[11] supporting the right elbow of the patient with left hand. Thereafter Vata, Pitta and Kapha Nadi were assessed through index, middle, and ring fingers, respectively. Vataadi Nadi, pulse rate, rhythm, volume, and character, i.e., Nadi properties were evaluated. In the modern method, subject's forearm was slightly pronated and the wrist slightly flexed. The radial artery was palpated with the tips of three fingers compressing the vessel against the head of radius bone for 1 min. Along with this rhythmicity (regular and irregular) as well as pulse volume (low, high, and moderate) were also recorded.

Nadi Tarangini Yantra

It was designed by Joshi et al., in 2007[12] to detect and analyze the information about inner health through pulse. It is a perfect combination of hardware and artificial intelligence-based, intuitive software that contains a strain gauge (1 cm × 1 cm dimension) based sensor having the diaphragm at its center, followed by a transmitter cum amplifier and by digitizer for quantification of analog signals. It has a diaphragm at the center which gets deformed by the pressure exerted by an artery and thus the system captures pulse waveforms as a time series data.

Statistical analysis

The analysis of data was done using statistical software SPSS version 21.0. By IBM Nadi Tarangini Yantra– Atreya Innovations Private Limited. The obtained data were analyzed through appropriate statistical tool, i.e., one-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, etc., for the inference of difference in variables of Nadi and pulse as per Prakriti.


  Observations and Results Top


In Pitta Prakriti individuals, the incidence of mean of pulse rate (manual) was found maximum in Pitta Prakriti and minimum in Vata Prakriti through both methods. However, mean value of pulse rate does not found to vary significantly as per Prakriti on applying one-way ANOVA [Table 1]. In all Prakriti individuals, the rhythmicity was found to be regular through manual method. While through Nadi Tarangini method, the incidence of irregular rhythm was more in Pitta and Kapha Prakriti individuals. On applying Chi-square test, the rhythmicity of pulse was found to statistically significant as per Prakriti through both methods [P = 0.020, P = 0.037; [Table 2]].
Table 1: Mean±standard deviation of pulse rate assessed through manual method and Nadi Tarangini as per Prakriti

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Table 2: Occurrence of regular and irregular pulse assessed manually as well as Nadi Tarangini as per Prakriti

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In Vata and Pitta Prakriti individuals, the incidence of high pulse volume (manual) was more while in Kapha Prakriti individuals low pulse volume was more. However, it does not vary significantly on applying Chi-square test [P = 0.081; [Table 3]].
Table 3: Pulse volume in different Prakriti individuals

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The incidence of Manda Nadi was maximum followed by Vegawati Nirama and Manda Sthool in all Prakriti individuals. On applying Chi-square test, it was found to statistically significant as per Prakriti [P = 0.049; [Table 4]].
Table 4: The properties of Nadi assessed through NT method as per Prakriti

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In Vata, Pitta and Kapha Prakriti individual, the predominance of Pittaj Nadi was observed in Vata and Pitta Prakriti individuals, whereas Vataj Nadi was predominated in Kapha Prakriti individuals. On applying Chi-square test, it was revealed that the occurrence of Vataj, Pittaj and Kaphaj Nadi as per Prakriti do not vary significantly [P = 0.081; [Table 5]]. In all Prakriti individuals, the incidence of Pittaj Nadi was maximum while Vataj Nadi was found minimum. On applying Chi-square test, it was found statistically significant [P = 0.049; [Table 6]].
Table 5: The occurrence of Vataj, Pittaj and Kaphaj Nadi through Nadi Pariksha (manual method) as per Prakriti

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Table 6: The occurrence of Vataj, Pittaj and Kaphaj Nadi assessed through Nadi Tarangini as per Prakriti

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  Discussion Top


The mean value of pulse rate in all Prakriti individuals lies in between the normal range due to the inclusion of healthy participants only. However, it was more in Pitta Prakriti individuals which might be due to Ushna and Tikshna Guna of Pitta and Guru and Sthira Guna of Kapha.[13] According to Acharya Charak, Pitta Prakriti individuals are having Ushnamukha, i.e., having relatively higher/upper range of body temperature (within physiological limit)[14] which might have resulted in relatively higher heart rate and thus pulse rate also.[15] Low et al., in their study have reported that Pitta Prakriti individuals may have sympathetic dominant activities and Kapha Prakriti individuals may have parasympathetic dominant activities thus having a higher heart rate in Pitta Prakriti individuals and lower in Kapha Prakriti individuals.[16] The incidence of irregular pulse rhythm should be more in Vata Prakriti individuals but in the present research, the irregular rhythm of pulse was observed in Kapha Prakriti individuals which may be taken as a directive for the future research.

As pulse volume and pulse pressure are directly related to each other, as pulse volume signifies stroke volume or pulse pressure.[6] Hence, the incidence of low volume pulse should be more in Vata Prakriti individuals, but incidence of high volume pulse was more in them. This might have resulted due to small sample size and thus needs to be evaluated in further studies. However, in earlier study, it has been found that pulse wave is also determined by the skin.[17] Thickness and hardness, i.e., more the thickness or hardness of skin less will be the pulse wave Kapha Prakriti individuals are having relatively thick skin due to Guru, Sthira property of Kapha[18] and also reported by the earlier study,[9] which may have result in higher of incidence of low pulse volume in them.

The occurrence of Manda Nadi might have occurred as pulse examination was done during morning hours, i.e., Kapha dominating Kala,[19] while the occurrence of Vegawati Nirama might be due to the reason that all subjects have been examined empty stomach, the food ingested by them have been digested properly resulting in the Niramavastha (as individuals were healthy and not having Aamavastha).

On comparing the incidence of Vatadi Nadi as per Prakriti, it was observed that incidence of dominance of Pittaj Nadi is very common in Pitta Prakriti individuals in comparison to Vata and Kapha Prakriti persons (through both the method, as occurrence of incidence Pittaj Nadi, in Pitta Prakriti is common in both methods).


  Summary and Conclusion Top


Although it was exploratory study, some relation between Nadi, Pulse and Prakriti has been observed but few of them were not found statistically significant. Second, the difference in observation through Nadi Tarangini method and manual method might have occurred due to the small sample size. Therefore, more researches may be conducted with larger sample size. It can be also said that Nadi and Prakriti are independent parameters and they are showing some correlation. Following criteria can be concluded regarding the various parameters of Nadi and pulse as per Prakriti.

Vata Prakriti

Low volume pulse, moderate pulse rate, and irregular rhythm pulse was obtained through manual method (while through NT method, low pulse rate, irregular rhythm was obtained in Vata Prakriti).

Pitta Prakriti

High pulse rate, regular rhythm, and high volume pulse were obtained through manual method (while through NT method, moderate pulse rate, and irregular rhythm were obtained in Pitta Prakriti).

Kapha Prakriti

Moderate pulse rate, regular rhythm, and low pulse volume were obtained through manual method (while through NT method, moderate pulse rate, and irregular rhythm were obtained in Kapha Prakriti).

Acknowledgment

All the faculty members and nonteaching members of the Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS BHU, Varanasi, for their technical assistance.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
  References Top

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Tewari P. Purvakhanda. In: Yogratankara. 1st ed., Ch. 1., Ver. 35. Varanasi: Chaukhmbha Visvabharati; 2010. p. 09.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Ghai CL. Clinical examination of cardiovascular system. In: Practical Physiology. 8th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2013. p. 263.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Singh PK, Byadgi PS, Tripathi NS. A study on effect of season on Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine in Different Prakriti Individuals. J Med 2012;2:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Tripathi NS. Concept of formation of Prakriti in Ayurveda. Ind J Res 2011;5:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Agrawal S, Gehlot S. Variations in the functions of Pitta Dosha as per gender and Prakriti. Tang Humanit Med 2017;7:18.1– 18.8, [doi: 10.5667/tang. 2017.0015].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Murthy Chandra PH. Purvakhnada. In: Sharangadhar Samhita. 2nd ed., Ch. 3., Ver. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series Office; 2007. p. 14.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Joshi A, Kulkarni A, Chandran S, Jayaraman VK, Kulkarni BD. Nadi Tarangini: A pulse based diagnostic system. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2007;2007:2207-10.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Guyton Arthur C, Hall John E. Rhythmical excitation of heart. In: Textbook of Medical Physiology. Eleventh edition. Reprint Edition. Noida, India Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier India Private Limited 2008. P. 116. ISBN 978-81-8147-920-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Jun MH, Jeon YJ, Cho JH, Kim YM. Pulse wave response characteristics for thickness and hardness of the cover layer in pulse sensors to measure radial artery pulse. Biomed Eng Online 2018;17:118.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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