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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2020
Volume 14 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 1-176

Online since Monday, December 28, 2020

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EDITORIAL FORUM: GUEST EDITORIALS  

Mainstreaming the alternative amid COVID-19 – An opportunity for AYUSH p. 1
Bhushan Patwardhan
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_313_20  
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Answering a critical question: Are Ayurvedic medicines against COVID-19 Placebos? Highly accessed article p. 3
Deep Narayan Pandey
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_274_20  
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EDITORIAL FORUM: EDITORIAL Top

COVID-19 – Ministry of AYUSH and national institute of Ayurveda p. 8
Sanjeev Sharma
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_272_20  
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CONCEPT AND MANAGEMENT OF COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

COVID-19 – An Ayurvedic perspective toward the prevention of a pandemic p. 11
Anjana Mishra, Manik Soni
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_123_20  
Introduction: COVID 19, a viral disease, which is caused by SARS CoV-2 is posing a serious threat to health worldwide. The disease emerged from Wuhan, a province in China, in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide making it a global concern. It is not only imposing an unprecedented challenge to the global health care system but also taking a toll on the social and economic front. Hundred of thousands of people have fallen severely ill, many have died and many more are economically and socially devastated by this pandemic. Several efforts are being pursued throughout the world to find treatment for people suffering from this highly contagious virus. Objectives: Ayurvedic perspective towards prevention of pandemic COVID-19. Data Source: Ayurvedic literature, Different Ayurvedic & Medical journals. Discussion: Principles of Ayurveda have been given due importance and are highlighted in containing the COVID-19 Pandemic. Conclusion: We believe that Ayurveda, the Indian medicine system has an answer to this problem. In this review, we provide an understanding of preventing COVID-19 using the Ayurveda concept of immunity (Vyadhikshamatva). Adopting Dincharya (Daily Regimen), Ritucharya (Seasonal Regimen) as advised in classical texts and paying close attention to the quality of food and appropriate ways of taking food help in maintaing health of an individual. Consumption of few herbal drugs having Rasayana quality, Pranayama and Yoga can prevent this devastating disease.
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COVID-19- Understanding the emerging viral disease through the concepts of Ayurveda p. 16
Minu Yadav, Gopesh Mangal, Gunjan Garg
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_124_20  
Introduction: Disease pattern is constantly changing yet infectious disease remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in less developed countries. The world around has experienced many outbreaks and epidemic in the last few decades most recently being the COVID 19. The viral infections emerging in India can be classified in three major categories of respiratory viral infections, arboviral infections and bat-borne viral infections. There are seven variants of corona virus that are known to infect human. The SARS and COVID-19 are closely related and pose a threat to the global population. The life-saving drugs and antibiotics used against these infections are rapidly losing effectiveness and the viruses develops resistance against it. The mortality is higher in individual with low immunity, having respiratory tract related illnesses and metabolic disorders. Aim: To understand the currently prevalent pandemic COVID-19 through various Ayurvedic concepts which may further assist in knowing the disease pathology correctly. Data Source and Review Method: For the systematic review article, various Ayurvedic texts- Charaka and Sushruta Samhita with Chakrapani and Dalhana Teeka are studied. Peer-reviewed clinical studies, review articles, evidence-based articles published on-line, various websites are considered. Result: Ayurveda has vast treatment modalities like Rasayana, Panchakarma, Sadvritta etc which not only prevents the occurrence of viral infection but also avoids the spread and mortality. The ideas of Ojas, improving the Bala through Yukti, undergoing Ritu Shodhana can certainly add years to the life along with improving the quality of life. Conclusion: The emerging viral disease can be prevented by proper use of the knowledge and principles of Ayurvedic texts.
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Ayurveda prophylaxis and intervention for COVID-19 Pandemic p. 22
Kavita Chambyal, Sanjeev Sharma, Suman Sharma
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_140_20  
Introduction: Novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 is causing a series of acute atypical respiratory symptoms. It is an Aupsargika Vyadhi and virus is transmittable between humans and has been declared as pandemic worldwide. The number of death toll continues to rise and there is no specific treatment till now. Initially, the pathology and symptoms of the disease pertain to the respiratory system and according to Ayurveda, this can be correlated with Pranavaha Srotas Vyadhi and the management should be like Shwasa roga. Objective: To provide critical evaluation of prophylaxis and interventions involved in Ayurveda for COVID-19. Data Source: Ayurveda Samhita, text, Journals, Internet etc. Review Method: Literary review. Discussion: On the basis of COVID-19 clinical features and present understanding of the pathogenesis, it mainly seems to be associated with Kapha and Vata Dosha vitiation. Nidana Parivarjana (not coming in contact with vyadhita such as maintain social distancing, use of mask, and proper hand hygiene); use of herbal, mineral, and herbo-mineral drugs; and Panchkarma procedures such as Nasya (Nasal application), Abhyanga, and Hitakara Ahara according to Desha, Kala, Ritu, etc., play important role in the prevention and management of this new disease. Conclusion: COVID-19 seems to be associated with vitiation of Kapha and Vata Dosha, and use of Ayurvedic principles and drugs can improve and regulate the immunity which helps in preventing the diseases. If disease manifestation occurs, then it can also be managed by Ayurveda interventions.
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Pandemic COVID-19 Diseases and Rajyakshma in Charak Samhita: A conceptual study p. 28
Nishi Arora
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_146_20  
Introduction: This paper correlates the vastly detailed concepts of Janpadod dhwans and Rajyakshma from Charak Samhita to the novel coronavirus. The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of the experts toward the similarities between coronavirus and Rajyakshma, in hopes of finding some more effective measures of prevention as well as cure for the ongoing pandemic. Materials and Methods: In this paper, a little description was given about Adharm and immunity. The concept of pandemic/epidemic is explained with the term “Janpadod dhwans.” A detailed comprehensive exploration of corona versus Rajyakshma was done by thoroughly analyzing certain concepts in the ancient script Charak Samhita and by conducting meticulous research online. Results: It was deduced that every disease changes its mode of onset and course of progression with changing climatic conditions and timeline peculiarities. The diseases are not identical, but the author hopes that the similarities drawn can be of use to better understand the whole spectra of diseases that have come and those that have yet to come. Conclusion: A clear conclusion can be drawn that there are many similarities between COVID-19 and Rajyakshma in clinical presentation, as well as the preventive measures known so far. The role of good immunity is the key factor in both the cases.
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Pedagogy of 21st century COVID-19 on the rationale of 6000 BCE Indian medical heritage p. 32
Konica Gera, Nellufar , Baldev Kumar
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_147_20  
Objective: Ayurvedic texts were documented ages ago, hence they have no specific cure to the diseases of the present day, as they are not described in the texts – this is the most dominant myth which is used to shut the voices of the researchers and practitioners of the Indian System of Medicine. The homo sapiens of the Planet Earth are under the constant fear of a single stranded RNA virus, reported for the first time on December 31, 2019, presenting as pneumonia of unknown origin which broke out exponentially and was declared a public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020, further renamed as COVID 19 in place of 2019 Novel Coronavirus on February 11, 2020. This strain is new for the present day researcher as its human transmission is reported for the first time but not for the science which cures the diseased (who are not new) unlike others who seek treatment for the diseases (which are innumerable and keep on emerging). As the virion is Novel and Ayurveda is ages old, these opposites do attract each other, and the present study aims at highlighting the principles laid in the texts of Ayurveda based on which COVID 19 and other newly emerging diseases could be understood and further added to the compendium to pave way for the future researches including drug development for the same. Data Source: SARS CoV 2 and COVID 19 were studied through reliable online sources and published research works. Classical texts of Ayurveda and available commentaries were explored to analyse the Ayurvedic perspective of COVID 19. Review Methods: Analytical review of the analogies was done to establish the hypothesis. Results: Analogies to the spread, transmission, prevention, and control of COVID 19 in texts of Ayurveda could be decrypted and the Etiopathogenesis of the disease based on the principles of Ayurveda was established. Conclusion: COVID 19 was found to be analogues to Vata Kapha Pradhan, Agantuja Abhishangaj jwara of Aupasargika category as per Ayurveda.
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Lessons from COVID-19 Pandemic – SWOT analysis p. 38
Sathya N Dornala, Snehalatha S N Dornala
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_158_20  
Introduction: The whole world is witnessing the transition of every sphere of human activity – home, work, education, health, time, travel, eating/drinking, shopping, etc., due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Neither hard power nor soft power could stop a tiny member of the coronavirus family from its global spread of COVID-19. Majorly, it has affected the health of the people and wealth of the nations. Society has explored many new normal thereby learn to live with corona. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to analyze what lessons we have learned from this once-in-a-lifetime experience, i.e., the COVID-19 pandemic and the issues and challenges in combating the sudden outbreaks. Materials and Methods: SWOT (Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats) analysis has been used as a tool to depict the lessons learned in general and for Ayurveda in specific from the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: There are no shortcuts to combat pandemics. Pandemics remind us about the common adage “Prevention is better than cure.” An ongoing situation may end tomorrow or the day after, but when all this is over, the earth will continue to spin, and life will flow again. Ultimately, it is the time to pause and rewind the lessons from pandemic and guidance for our future public health hazards.
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COVID-19: Opportunity for mainstreaming Ayurveda to transform Indian health care p. 42
Nisha Munishwar, Rakesh Bramhankar, Shailesh Deshpande
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_220_20  
Introduction: Every 100 years, world face dreadful pandemic proving human helpless in front of nature. Nowadays, we are struggling with COVID-19 pandemic which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has spread worldwide, its first case was reported in Wuhan, China, and since then, it has spread across the world becoming one of the worst pandemics in the history of humankind. Approach to the disease is still relying on a trial basis. No accurate cure or medications have been proved effective till date. The world is trying to invent effective vaccination, but it will take one or 2 years for a successful launch of effective vaccine. Objectives: Medical sciences are giving more importance to boosting immunity and that is the heritage of Ayurveda. COVID-19 is equally affecting physical as well as mental health. So, Physical and mental health of covid-19 affected as well as non-affected persons can be very well managed with Pragmatic Ayurvedic approach. Material and Methods: An extensive literary search of different classical texts has been conducted to collect classical references along with multiple databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) available online for the related published works. Conclusion: In this panic situation, the holistic approach of Ayurveda in the form of curative and preventive medication, Rasayana Chikitsa, Yoga, and Pranayama, etc., will be helpful to manage this disease. This article is going to dig out the treasure of Ayurveda in the form of holistic approach.
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Management approach to Covid-19 associated upper respiratory tract infection in Ayurveda: A review study p. 49
Gulab Chand Pamnani, Prabhakar Vardhan, Rajendra Kumar Soni
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_231_20  
Introduction: The outbreak of COVID-19, a global pandemic is extraordinarily contagious, and its fast spread has affected more than 180 countries and has made the containment difficult. It is imperative to have proficient therapeutics to manage the current and upcoming situation. Unfortunately, no acceptable treatment protocol has been developed yet. On the other hand, a number of clinical entities have been described in detail with their treatment in Ayurvedic classics which closely resemble various presentations of COVID 19 infections. Material and Methods: A meticulous search of classic Ayurvedic texts, available contemporary literature pertaining to COVID 19 as well as clinical wisdom of stalwarts of Ayurveda was analysed to draw safe and effective treatment protocols as per presentation of the disease. Results and Discussion: Treatment protocols for COVID 19 with special reference to upper respiratory tract infections as detailed in Ayurveda have been developed and leads from these protocols can be utilized for the better management of COVID 19 related ailments and post COVID 19 complications.
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COVID-19: Lessons and emerging theories in Ayurveda p. 54
J Nandeesh
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_191_20  
Background: The current pandemic situation of COVID-19 has given an opportunity to explore the traditional medicines around the globe. Ayurveda, being the front runner among the traditional knowledge, has a key role to overcome the situation. It has a distinct advantage of approaching the disease from various perspectives such as principle-based approach and diagnosis-based approach. A pandemic situation like COVID-19 can be considered under various concepts such as janapadodhvamsa and aupasargika roga as per Ayurveda. During the initial wave of COVID-19 infection, the uncertainty of the pathological considerations and legal restrictions limited Ayurveda to the preventive strategy by modulating the immune system of the body. Gradually, there is a shift from preventive to curative approach in Ayurveda, owing to unsatisfactory results from the contemporary medicine. The management protocol has expanded by not only concentrating on the yuktivyapashraya cikitsa (internal medicines). Several methods of daivavyapashraya and sattvavajaya cikitsa (measures to improve the psychological and social well-being) are adopted which include social norms as well as dietary regimen. Trisutra theory of Ayurveda, i.e., hetu (cause), linga (clinical features), and aushadha (management) is well utilized to frame therapeutic guidelines. Materials and Methods: Classical Samhita is referred focusing mainly on Caraka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. Information related to diseases affecting a larger population at the same time is compiled. The references obtained are presented in terms of roga pareeksha vidhi. Results: Attempt is made to analyze the present pandemic in classical terms. Discussion and Conclusion: Classical references can be very well used to understand the pathological aspects of pandemic like COVID-19. Role of larger community role is inevitable in the occurrence of pandemic and following Ayurveda lifestyle definitely prevents them.
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Pandemic COVID-19 in relation to Ayurveda: A brief review through Sushruta Samhita p. 58
Foram Joshi, Tukaram Dudhamal
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_199_20  
Background: Being the foremost science of life, Ayurveda has upper hand in managing chronic as well as acute clinical conditions varying upon its perseverance in growing clinical strength of contemporary age. Materials and Methods: Classical references of contagious and communicable diseases have been mentioned by Sushruta were studied with clinical examples and their modes of transmission for understanding the cascade of COVID-19 conditions now and then. Results and Discussion: Current scenario of COVID-19 is a burning issue of human life which resembles with the classical narration of “Aupasargika Jwara” and pandemic threat with “Janapadodhwansa” term of Sushruta. Along with that, Sushruta has given methods of eradicating such clinical conditions by different measures such as rules of Sthana Parityaga (leave the contaminated place and self-quarantine), Anjali Pranaam (social greeting by maintaining distance), and Daana-Japa-Upahara, ethical practices of charity, chanting, and offerings by means of helping the needy people in crises in any way to survive in critical conditions. Conclusion: This article refers to enlighten the area of focus to revalidate the facts, concentrate, and implement for the betterment of humanity in terms of ethical practice of health science and human rituals to manage the life and life cycles.
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COVID-19: An ayurvedic appraisal p. 64
Darshna H Pandya
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_200_20  
Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness, transmitted by breathing of or contact with infected droplets and the clinical features characterized by a variable degree of severity of symptoms, ranging from a mild upper respiratory tract illness to severe interstitial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. As of mid of August 2020, this has been spread to 218 countries with more than two billion confirmed cases, including near about 7.5 lakh deaths. Objectives: The aim was to understand the disease COVID-19 in Ayurvedic phraseology. Material and Data Source: To fulfill the aim, Ayurvedic classical literature starts from Brihatrayee to Siddhanta Nidana (by Gananath Sen) has been referred and published literature available on COVID-19 was searched out from PubMed search. Results: No one to one match of the disease found in Ayurveda, but on the basis of scattered references regarding Jwara and Janapadodhvamsa, an attempt has been made to understand COVID-19 in Ayurvedic phrasing. Conclusion: The disease COVID-19 may be categorized as Vayu-Kapha predominant Sannipataja Agantuja type of Jwara.
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The Ayurvedic approach toward COVID - 19 pandemic p. 68
Monika Priya, AC Kar
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_243_20  
Introduction: In the wake of an unprecedented pandemic of Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), the entire mankind is drenched in deaths and miseries. The inexorable inter-continental spread of this infection has trapped almost 185 countries and has massively afflicted the human health. Despite having strong backup of advanced technology and modern science, the consistent worldwide researches have not been able to yield any clinically proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. This calls for the need to include plural systems of knowledge within the domain of our consideration so as to break the chain at the earliest. Herein, Ayurveda, the oldest indigenous medicine system of India, can be a potent option for its prognostic and therapeutic implications. The present study is an attempt to highlight the potential role of Ayurveda in management of COVID-19. Methods: A sincere study of classical Ayurveda textbooks and their available commentaries along with modern texts, websites and articles has been done to showcase the prognostic and therapeutic implications of Ayurveda. Results: Amidst this crisis of COVID 19 pandemic, Ayurveda needs to be merged in the mainstream health care to benefit the nation from its prognostic, prophylactic and therapeutic implications. Conclusion: Evidence-based insights should be highly encouraged to strengthen the scope of Ayurveda beyond preventive health care and care for lifestyle disorders or non-communicable diseases. It's high time for we Indians to take up the baton with wisdom and show the world the caliber of our rich traditional medicine system.
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IMMUNITY AND COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Understanding COVID-19 in light of Ayurveda and exploring possible role of immune booster Kashaya in its management p. 73
Ram Kishor Joshi, Deepika Gupta, Shankar Gautam, Abhishek Upadhyay
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_130_20  
Background: A new virus of corona family known as novel coronavirus causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). A good number of principles are found in the classical texts of Ayurveda, which can be compared with the concepts of SARS-CoV-2, and many herbal drugs written in the Ayurvedic text, through its immunomodulatory effect, may enhance host–defense mechanism against such diseases to decrease the mortality. Aim: Our objectives of this review are (i) to understand the concepts of SARS-CoV-2 in light of Ayurveda with their approximate delineation through theoretical analysis; (ii) to review the role of Immune Booster Kashaya Special (IBKS) in boosting and regulating immunity and in preventing complications; and (iii) to explore the effectiveness of each drug among scientific community to facilitate for their extensive research. Methodology: We also searched for relevant keywords in various texts of Ayurveda as well as on online databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, CrossRef, and Google Scholar to understand the concepts of SARS-CoV-2 in light of Ayurveda and to explore the possible role of 14 medicinal plants of “immune booster Kashaya” formulation. Result: We found that SARS-CoV-2 is symptomatically very much similar to Sannipataj Jwar as described in Ayurveda and the content of IBKS possesses antiviral, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antianxiety, and phagocytic properties. It seems to promote the body's immune mechanism against viral activity and to prevent complications such as inflammation-induced damage and cytokine storming in COVID-19. Conclusion: As there is a lack of an effective SARS-CoV-2 virus-specific medicine or vaccine, these immunomodulatory strategies may be implemented before or shortly after viral exposure and may be paired with antiviral therapies to improve antiviral immune responses by providing interferon-inducing agents or by nonspecific boosting of immunity with innate factors. Immune booster Kashaya should be gone through extensive in vivo and in vitro studies and clinical trials for further validation.
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The concept of immunity in Ayurveda W. S. R. to COVID-19 – Review paper p. 85
B M. N. Kumar
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_152_20  
Objective: The world was confronted with an illness 'COVID-19', caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This novel coronavirus is highly contagious and in just a few months has become a serious threat to human health all over the world. The mainstay in the management of corona viral infections has been supportive care, nutrition, and preventing secondary infections in the absence of any antiviral agent or vaccine. The best way of preventing COVID-19 infection is by enhancing an individual's body immunity. Hence the main objective of this study is to bring forward to the concept of immunity in Ayurveda for preventing COVID-19. Data Source: Different Ayurvedic samhitas and text books, modern medical books, research papers in different journals and internet sources were referred to understand the concept of ojas, immunity and COVID-19. Review Methods: To compile the available literatures on immunity and COVID-19. • To compile the importance of ojas and vyadhikshamatva. • To compile the importance of Ayurvedic concept of immunity in prevention of COVID-19. Results and Conclusion: The best way of preventing COVID-19 infection is by enhancing an individual's body immunity. Ojas is considered as responsible for Vyadhikshamatva (immunity). An adequate exposition of the concept of ojas concerning immunity is essential during this COVID-19 pandemic.
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Rationality and applicability of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya (Rejuvenating and vitality boosting herbs) in prevention and management of COVID-19 p. 92
Vishal Kumar, Shivani Ghildiyal, Tanuja Nesari
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_153_20  
Introduction: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 or novel corona virus is declared as a global emergency. Researchers are working hard to develop effective remedy and vaccine, but still the challenge to manage the spread and disease progression is existing. In Ayurveda, a good number of herbs are ascribed for health promotion and longevity; many of them are scientifically proven to boost immunity. Jeevaneeya mahakashaya of Charaka Samhita is such group of ten herbs enumerated for longevity and rejuvenation. However, few of the herbs of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya are endangered and not available easily. Thus, in the present article, the herbs of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya having Pratinidhi (substitutes) suggested in Bhavaprakasha Nighantu were reviewed. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the rationality and applicability of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya in the prevention and management of COVID-19. Data Source: The data was collected from Charaka Samhita and Bhavaprakasha Nighantu and PubMed database. Review Methods: Jeevaneeya mahakashaya and its Pratinidhi herbs were reviewed from Charaka Samhita and Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, respectively. Herbs of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya were also reviewed from PubMed data base for reported pharmacological activities beneficial in the management of COVID-19 by their botanical name. Results: The literature search revealed that the herbs enumerated in the Jeevaneeya mahakashaya were scientifically evaluated in various preclinical and clinical studies and showed anti-viral, anti-bacterial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tussive, cardio-protective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, and hepatoprotective activity. These potential of herbs may help in CD4+ and CD8+ cell proliferation, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor alpha, inflammatory markers inhibition. It also protects various organs from damage, and improves respiration. Conclusion: The rational use of plants of Jeevaneeya mahakashaya may help in the prevention and management of SARS-CoV 2.
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HERBS AND DRUGS FOR COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Herbs and COVID-19 Pandemic p. 100
Anubha Chaudhary, Sandeep Garud, Mita Kotecha
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_133_20  
Objective: COVID-19 is the most recently discovered infectious disease by coronavirus. The WHO has declared it a pandemic. Since its outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, scientists all over the world are working hard to find a treatment modality. However, till now, there has been no definite treatment for COVID-19. The world is looking hopefully towards Ayurveda for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Data Source: The data was collected from classical texts of Ayurveda along with modern literature and scientific publications. Review Method: All the data was critically analysed in the context of COVID 19. Result: The Ayurveda herbs with Rasayan, Shwas-Kaashara, Krimighna activity like Haridra, Guduchi, Amalaki, Maricha, Twak, Ashwagandha, and Tulasi are showing promising results in initial experimental studies. Conclusion: Various chemical constituents present in these herbs are responsible for preventing cytokine storm and viral penetration and replication in host cells. These herbs also improve immunological function.
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COVID-19: Clinical aspects and role of single herbal drugs – A review from classical texts of Ayurveda p. 103
Rinky Thakur, Raghavendra Naik, Santhosh Avangapur
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_157_20  
Objectives: The present review was carried out to compile and evaluate the clinical aspects of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) described in classical texts of Ayurveda. Data Sources: Information available in different classical texts of Ayurveda, compendiums, and latest Nighantu (lexicons) was compiled, analyzed and presented systematically. Review Methods: Concepts of epidemics, possible management approach, different single herbal drugs indicated in the management of symptoms related to COVID-19 as described in Ayurveda is presented systematically with the help of published scientific literature. Results and Conclusion: A comprehensive review of single herbal drugs indicated for the management of symptoms related to COVID-19 shows that, they can be categorized into symptom modifiers and general health promoters. The drugs having symptom specific indications along with reported research related to that indication such as shunthi, pippali, haridra, tulasi, saptaparna can be considered for their role in the effective management of symptoms. General health promoting agents such as Ashvagandha, Guduchi, Yashtimadhu, Haritaki, Amalaki which are having rasāyana, balya properties can improve quality of life, provides strength, or resistance against the disease. Some experimental and clinical studies are also reported to establish their efficacy which supports the classical claims. Further scientific studies to understand the exact mechanism of action of these drugs individually or in combinations is need of the time.
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Visaghna herbs and metals as neutralizing antibodies in the prevention and treatment of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 p. 112
Manoj Kumar Dash, Namrata Joshi, D N. S. Gautam
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_207_20  
Introduction: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2 is a viral respiratory disease threatening worldwide public health, social stability, and financial development. Pathological hallmark for SARS-CoV-2 is an ineffective innate immune reaction. i.e., immune cells recognize it as dangerous toxins in place of self-antigen. Published data on neutralizing antibodies suggests their role in the prevention and treatment of infection SARS-CoV-2 through passive immunity in COVID-19. Objective: The present paper discusses the role of vishghna dravya in either flushing out or neutralization of toxins from the body. Material & Method: We developed the screening system based on Ayurveda & Modern pharmacology from different databases. Reported plants and minerals were retrieved from ancient texts. Furthermore, pharmacology method was used to preliminarily uncover the molecule mechanism. Results: Nine herbs and five metallic bhasmas having Vishaghna property were systematically reviewed, out of which four herbs and five metallic bhasmas have been reported to possess neutralizing antibody potential. Vishagna dravya works on concept of Samana pratyarbdha, the inherent qualities of the predominant mahabhutas. Madhura rasa (six), Katu Rasa (Five), Tikta Rasa (seven), Kasaya Rasa (two) have Prithvi, Vayu, Akash & Agni Mahabhuta that may exert neutralizing effect by making the cells more strong, inhibits the absorption of virus & increasing the various metabolic activities. Conclusion: To meet this challenge, this article discusses some published Ayurveda herbs and Nano metals which may neutralize the virus toxin for the prevention and treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2.
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Kshara (Alkali) in the prevention and treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019: An ayurvedic specialized pharmacotherapy w.s.r. to the traditional diet of Northeast India p. 119
Binay Sen, Anuradha Roy
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_227_20  
Objective: At present, the entire world is fighting against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite all the possible efforts, there is no proven and effective medicine or vaccine discovered till date. There are strong reasons for demanding alternative therapies that could be used in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Data Source and Review methods: An extensive literary and multiple database (Science Direct, PubMed, Springer, and Google Scholar) search was carried out for related published works on kshara and alkali in the domains of Ayurvedic, traditional, and modern knowledge. Kshara (alkali) made of aswagandha, tulasi, and pippali is used as a medicine and a dietetic adjuvant in respiratory diseases in Ayurveda. “Khar” is one of the popular traditional food items of Northeast India, well known for different therapeutics. Kshara (alkaline water), prepared from banana and black gram, contains a rich amount of potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe), with pH of 10.22–13.00 and 10.02, respectively. Kolakhar (alkali made of banana) has been found to inhibit the growth of different pathogens in in vitro studies. Result and Discussion: Alkaline environment within the normal range of blood pH positively influences the inflammatory, immune, and antiviral mechanisms of the body, which is said to be one of the reasons to keep the body healthy and immune to disease. There is scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of kshara in treating viral respiratory infections. In vitro studies have demonstrated the inactivation effect of alkaline medium on respiratory viruses. Conclusion: Kshara could be a potential pharmacotherapy and food adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
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MENTAL HEALTH AND YOGA FOR COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Ayurveda management of COVID-19 on the principles of psychoneuroimmunology p. 127
Mamta Tiwari, Vineeta Singh, Anurag Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_62_20  
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV2 that can spread between animals and humans. Ayurveda and yoga, popular traditional and complementary medicine systems, have prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may be the answer to the global search of a comprehensive preventive strategy against COVID 19.The objective of study is to explore and provide an integrated understanding of basic preventive principles of Ayurveda in light psychoneuroimmunology. Methods: The present review study was carried out by collecting the literature and research finding from various classical and modern texts books, online reports and online research articles in Google Scholar and PubMed Database. Results: In this review it was revealed that the practices of Dinacharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Ayurveda dietetics, yoga, Achara Rasayana (rejuvenation through right code of conduct), and Rasayana (rejuvenation) drugs may have a comprehensive area of influence on the nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems and immune functions of the body. Conclusion: The attempts have been made to deliver an integrated understanding of the above principles in light of psychoneuroimmunology. Adopting these principles may have the restorative role of health and immunity by reducing the susceptibility for COVID infection.
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Ayurvedic approach to psychosomatic distress due to COVID-19 p. 134
Sheenam Gangawat, Shamsa Fiaz
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_179_20  
Introduction: The outbreak of COVID-19 came into existence last year in December 2019 at Wuhan, China. The WHO declared it as pandemic and great threat to the humanity. The Government of India has taken various steps to prevent the citizens such as lockdown, work from home, guidelines for social distancing, and screening. Due to which, the disease has been controlled to a great extent, but it has also seen very terrible results such as loss of business of a large number of people and health services collapsed which leads to socioeconomic insecurity in society results to psychosomatic distress. Objective: The objective was to understand the role of Ayurveda for overcoming the psychosomatic distress due to COVID-19. Materials and Methods: Psychosomatic distress causes were analyzed by the data given in various private and government reports available in the public domain through their official websites, journals, newspapers, and magazines. Figure out the best possible preventive and Ayurvedic principles from different Samhitas and textbooks for psychosomatic distress. Conclusion: At a time where none of the medical systems of the world have any authentic treatment for COVID-19, Ayurveda is the most appropriate and safe medical practice for the people of India because it is time-tested and cost-effective. With the help of Ayurveda, we can avoid corona by increasing immunity following dincharya, ritucharya, and aachar rasayan. Thus, we can save ourselves and our family from the side effects caused by COVID-19.
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Ayurveda and psychosocial impact of COVID-19 p. 138
Tanuja Mehta, Uttam Kumar Sharma, Bhawana Mittal
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_224_20  
Objective: SARS COV-2 is an infectious kind of communicable disease. Where epidemiological triad is formed by environment, agent and host. Along with medical and preventive actions psychosocial intervention for people affected by COVID 19 is equally necessary. Our motive is to find out the role of Ayurveda in managing the psychosocial impact of COVID 19 pandemic. Data Source: For Ayurvedic and modern concepts references have been taken from textbooks, various websites, electronic media and articles. Review Method: Systematic review PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses). Result: Rasayana therapy, Panchakarama procedures, Sadvrit Palan (code of right conducts) and Aachara Rasyana mentioned in Ayurveda can help to manage psychosocial impact of covid 19. Conclusion: Thus, Ayurveda proved to be beneficial in promoting various effective strategies in managing mental and social health in COVID 19.
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Yoga: A nonpharmacological approach against current pandemic of Coronavirus Disease-19 p. 143
Ankur Kumar Tanwar, Sujata Rajan
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_138_20  
Introduction: In this current era of the pandemic, when the Covid-19 pandemic rapidly spread across the world, the population at a large scale suffered from fear, worry, and certain concern regarding himself/herself as well as for their families especially adults and children. A significant level of stress also developed in health care providers. Many people all over the world are suffering from loneliness, anxiety, and disturbed mental health issues during lockdown, quarantines, and isolation. Mental health is one of the important factors for overall health. No vaccination or treatment available for COVID-19 till today. The only approach is the preventive and promotive approach. Psychological issues also hamper our physical health and level of immunity. Objective: In this study, an attempt has been made to critically review the role of yoga against the current pandemic. Data Source and Review Methods: References are searched from various authoritative texts and worldwide accepted scientific databases concerning the effect of yoga in the different body systems, immune system as well as on mental health. Result: The psychophysical approach which helps in reducing the mental issue maintains mental health and reduces stress as well as boosts our immunity against communicable diseases like COVID-19 is Yoga. Discussion: Yoga is cost-effective, may be practiced as a self-care treatment against physical and mental health issues, enhance self-efficacy and self-confidence. Yoga may be effective as a supportive adjunct in some medical conditions. Conclusion: This review summarizes the effects of yoga interventions against the current pandemic as well as helps to understand the preventive and health promotive aspect of yoga on various components of mental and physical health.
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Role of yoga and meditation in sustainability and maintaining healthy life in pandemic p. 147
Chander Shekhar Sharma, Amrita Sharma
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_156_20  
Introduction: Yoga and meditation are believed to start with the very inception of civilization and have munificent effects physically as well as mentally. As the entire world is facing dreadful COVID-19 pandemic, the concept of Yoga and meditation is the best way to keep a person in good shape, physically and mentally. Yoga along with meditation, as an integral part of our lifestyle tells us how to control the basic thought process and to stabilize oneself and integrate the state of health. Methods: Keeping the COVID-19 pandemic in mind, it is time for us to look back to utilize the treasure of Yoga and meditation for immunity, strengthening our willpower to stand the challenges of pandemic and develop resilience against negativity. Yoga usually emphasizes Asana, Pranayama, Dhyana and if practiced on daily basis will increase endorphins-feel-good-chemicals within the body and reduces cortisol levels that cause stress. Result and Conclusion: This pandemic has shown worldwide devastating effects on health-care-system, so Yoga and meditation practices could be utilized to counter the negatives of individual's physical, emotional as well as social health. In the current scenario, it is of utmost importance to deal the negative emotions with nonpharmacological interventions. The current paper focuses on the ways to protect ourselves in COVID-19 pandemic and live healthy life with regular practice of Yoga and meditation. It also highlights the role of Yoga and meditation in controlling a person's body, mind and soul. It also combines physical and mental discipline of the body and mind; to aid in managing stress, anxiety, and keep ourselves relaxed. Hence, developing a positive state of mind and promote better health to fight against the pandemic.
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Preventive potential of meditation in COVID-19 by increasing immunity through positive change in mental attitude p. 152
Shalini Thakur, Ashish Guleria
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_176_20  
Objective: COVID-19 is deadliest pandemic gripping gripping the whole globe. Despite of best researches, there is no sure treatment module till now. The cure of the disease lies in the immunity of individuals. Also the attitude of the healthy persons to follow guidelines plays a key role in prevention. Positive minded persons follow guidelines more precisely & less liable to be stressed, easily curable & more resilient. This is the need of hour in COVID Pandemic, we need people who strengthen their immunity and follow the preventive measures with positivity, optimism and hope. So basically we need to keep our attitude positive. Data Source: Ayurvedic and Yogic texts, internet. Review Method: A study was taken as base which was conducted on 20 apparently healthy volunteers to assess the effect of meditation on Agya Chakra to see its transformational efficacy in increment in positivity of Mental Attitude. For this, volunteers were selected randomly and to measure their attitude, LIKERT SCALE was framed and evaluation of attitude was done before and after meditation trial of 21 days. Result: After statistical analysis, this meditation practice was found highly significant in changing the human attitude and increasing its positivity. Conclusion: This result is quite encouraging after such a short duration of trial and may be a landmark in boosting health and immunity in COVID times. It is a nondrug therapy, can be done individually in solace of lockdown, advisable for masses requiring no vigorous training as indicated by the fact that all volunteers in trial were novice.
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Scientific rationale of pragmatic intervention of Chakra meditation as bioenergetic medicine in COVID-19 p. 159
Pooja Sabharwal, Rima Dada, Chandra Shekher Kaushik, Akanksha Sharma
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_252_20  
Objective: All around the globe the COVID-19 pandemic has jolted the minds of Scientists. They are trying to find any possible measures to fight against this pandemic. There is no specific treatment available for corona virus till now and a vaccine is yet to become available until 2021. The patients suffering from COVID-19 are under physical as well psychological trauma. Any intervention which improves quality of life of these patients is of paramount importance at this juncture. Chakras mediation which is a non pharmacological intervention for psychological wellbeing of patients is a time tested and scientifically proven approach to deliver holistic treatment to them. Traditional Indian practices are real soft power of India being followed for spiritual wellbeing even in this time of crisis. Data Source: Extract of various research studies related to Intervention of such practices like meditation, Pranic healing have been reviewed for therapeutic intervention of Shadchakra healing in health and diseases. Review Method: Evidence generated after pragmatic intervention of Chakras meditation will be a scientific contribution which will further generate interest throughout the scientific community. Result and Conclusion: Shadchakra healing therapy is most effective and experienced Psycho-immunological therapy for COVID patients.
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JYOTISH AND COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Critical study of concept of Grahana (Eclipse) in Ayurveda and jyotish science and its influence on human lives WSR to COVID-19 p. 164
Subhash D Waghe, Bhagya Ranjan Dash
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_237_20  
Objective: (1) To intimate about the concepts of Grahana as described in Jyotish Shastra and Ayurveda. (2) Brief knowledge about the facts related to the science of Jyotish for the current scenario. (3) To describe about the impacts of celestial events on human life and on present pandemic, i.e., COVID-19. Data Sources: Secondary. Review Methods: Literary method is adopted here from the available sources of Ayurveda and different Ancient Jyotish (Astrological) texts. Results: From the literature, it is observed that there are definite relations in between the eclipses of Sun and Moon on wars and pandemics. Conclusions: Effects of eclipses on pandemics were seen since a long period of time. It was observed and concluded that eclipse affects the human lives in various ways and may act as potential indicator of war and epidemics. To generate the data, there is a need to study the effects of eclipses on epidemics and wars which in turn has been told as the cause of epidemic in Ayurveda.
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GARBHINI PARICHARYA IN COVID-19: REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Garbhini Paricharya in COVID-19 pandemic: A leading role of Ayurveda p. 171
Pankhuri Hitesh, Sunita Suman
DOI:10.4103/joa.joa_214_20  
Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS COV-2) and Garbha-kala is one of the most crucial and responsible stage in woman's life. COVID-19 can produce devastating effect on maternal wellbeing. Garbhini Jwara can be interrelated to some extent with features of COVID-19 in pregnancy. Objective: As, there is still some time for the approval and distribution of anti-viral vaccine against it. Thus, imperative critical care is a pre-requisite to manage COVID-19 during pregnancy. Due to shortfall of data on COVID-19 in traditional system of knowledge, present trial utilizes treatment modalities mentioned in ayurvedic classics to conquer novel COVID-19 symptomatically. Data Source: The proposed review article draws the data from different ayurvedic texts, research papers and drudging efforts are made to gather the knowlegde of Garbhini Paricharya from contemporary science to fulfill the lacunas and thoroughly excel in it. Review Method: The symptoms of COVID-19 can be analogized with the features of Sannipata Jwara during pregnancy. It epitomizes as Janapada-dhamsa vikara and can be categorized into Bhutabhisanga Agantuga Vikara (External cause of microbes). Result and Conclusion: Ayurveda exhilarate intensive approach to cope-up with this unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Decoction prepared from the ayurvedic drugs like Tulsi patra, Shirish twak, Guduchi kanda, Yastimadhu mool and Nimba patra acts as Daha-prashaman, Jantughna, Swashara, Kasahara, Krimighna, Jwarahara and Rasayana. It possess Anti-viral, Anti-bacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Immuno-modulatory properties due to various chemical constituents.
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